Millions+ BC writers ⊕

⊕Millions+BC Writers


MILLIONS+ BC WRITERS ARE SEPARATED BY METHOD OF OBSERVATION / DEDUCTION. MANY TYPES OF SCIENCE COMBINE, WITH EACH BEING LAYERED BY “THE OLDEST IS ON THE BOTTOM” TECHNIQUE.

Millions+ BC Writers
Law of Superposition

Superposition, or the layer theory, assumes that the old stuff is on the bottom.

Rubidium–Strontium dating

Development of this process was aided by German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, who later went on to discover nuclear fission in December 1938.

  • The utility of the rubidiumstrontium isotope system results from the fact that 87Rb (one of two naturally occurring isotopes of rubidium) decays to 87Sr with a half-life of 49.23 billion years. In addition, Rb is a highly incompatible element that, during partial melting of the Earth's crust, joins the lava melt (rather than remaining in crust minerals). As a result, Rb is enriched in crustal rocks.
  • The radiogenic daughter, 87Sr, is produced in this decay process and was produced in rounds of stellar nucleosynthesis predating the creation of the Solar System.
Volcano Ash (Tephrochronology)

Tephrochronology is uses volcanic ash from a single eruption—to create a time bookmark for that eruption.

The premise of the technique is that each volcanic event produces ash with a unique chemical "fingerprint" that allows the deposit to be identified across the area affected by fallout. Thus, once the volcanic event has been independently dated, the bookmark (aka. "tephra horizon") will act as time marker.

This ash can be found in paleoenvironmental or archaeological records.

Tree-ring Dating (Dendrochronology)

Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.

North/South Pole switching history (Paleomagnetism)

Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form. Paleomagnetism (or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials.

Paleogeography

Palaeogeography is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes, including human or cultural environments. When the focus is specifically on the study of landforms, the term paleogeomorphology is sometimes used instead.